Chemical Concepts Demonstrated: Ignition point, combustion temperature, flash point
Demonstrations (three possible):
In all of the cases stated above, the solution used is burned up while the thing the solution is on remains unaffected.
The solutions burn at lower temperatures than the paper or cloth involved. When a flame is applied, the solution (which is easier to ignite) burns before the fire moves onto the paper or cloth (which is harder to ignite). Because it requires less energy for the fire to continue to burn the "fuel" solutions than to attempt to ignite the paper, the items soaked in the solutions remain unharmed.