The Greek Elements (Empedocles)

Empedocles, for example, argued that matter was made up of four primary substances: fire, air, earth, and water, which were indestructible, as Parmenides argued. But change was constant, as Heraclitus believed, because the elements were constantly being mixed or separated by the forces that acted on them: love (the force of attraction) and hate (the force of repulsion).


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